Umphezulu weNtaba yeTekhnoloji kunye nezixhobo zeSMT

Itekhnoloji yokunyuka komhlaba, i-SMT kunye nesixhobo sayo sokudibanisa umphezulu, ii-SMDs zikhawulezisa kakhulu indibano ye-PCB njengoko izinto zinyuka ngokulula ebhodini.

Jonga ngaphakathi kuso nasiphi na isiqwenga sezixhobo ze-elektroniki ezenzelwe ukuthengisa kwezi ntsuku kwaye sigcwele izixhobo zemizuzu. Endaweni yokusebenzisa izinto zesiko ezineentambo ezikhokelayo ezinjengezo zinokusetyenziselwa ukwakhiwa kwamakhaya kunye neekiti, ezi zinto zibekwe kumphezulu weebhodi kwaye uninzi zinobungakanani bemizuzu.

Obu buchwephesha baziwa ngokuba yi-Surface Mount Technology, i-SMT kunye ne-SMT. Phantse zonke izixhobo zanamhlanje ezenziwe ngentengiso zisebenzisa itekhnoloji yonyuso umphezulu, i-SMT, kuba ibonelela ngeenzuzo ezibonakalayo ngexesha lokwenziwa kwe-PCB, kwaye ngenxa yobungakanani bokusetyenziswa kwezinto ze-SMT kwenza ukuba izinto zombane ezininzi zipakishwe kwindawo encinci kakhulu.

Ukongeza kubungakanani, itekhnoloji yomphezulu wentaba ivumela ukuhlangana okuzenzekelayo kwe-PCB kunye ne-soldering ukuba isetyenziswe, kwaye oku kuzisa ukuphucuka okubonakalayo ekuthembekeni nasekulondolozeni okukhulu kwiindleko.

Yintoni kanye kanye itekhnoloji yomphezulu wentaba?

Ngexesha le-1970 kunye nele-1980 inqanaba lokuzenzekelayo laqala ukunyuka kwindibano ye-PCB yeebhodi ezisetyenziswa kwizixhobo ezahlukeneyo. Ukusetyenziswa kwezinto zemveli ezinesikhokelo akuzange kungqineke kulula kwindibano ye-PCB. I-Resistors kunye ne-capacitors kufuneka ukuba zenziwe kwangaphambili izikhokelo zabo ukuze zilungele ukungena emingxunyeni, kwaye kwaneesekethe ezihlanganisiweyo kufuneka ukuba izikhokelo zazo zibekwe kwindawo efanelekileyo ukuze zibekwe ngokulula kwimingxunya.

Le ndlela ihlala ibonakala inzima njengoko izikhokelo zihlala ziphoswa yimingxunya njengoko unyamezelo olufunekayo lokuqinisekisa ukuba lwalungene ngqo kwimingxunya lwalomelele kakhulu. Ngenxa yoku kungenelela komqhubi bekufuneka rhoqo ukusombulula imiba yezinto ezingalungelanga ngokufanelekileyo nokumisa oomatshini. Oku kuyicothisile inkqubo yendibano ye-PCB kunye neendleko ezonyuswe kakhulu 

Uhlobo lwePCBA lusebenzisa itekhnoloji yomphezulu wentaba

Kwindibano ye-PCB akukho sidingo secandelo esikhokelela ekudluliseni ibhodi. Endaweni yoko kwanele ukuba izinto zithengiselwe ngqo ebhodini. Ngenxa yoko, iteknoloji yokunyuka komhlaba, i-SMT yazalwa, kwaye ukusetyenziswa kwezinto ze-SMT zavuka ngokukhawuleza okukhulu njengoko izibonelelo zazo zabonwa.

Namhlanje umphezulu wentaba yetekhnoloji yeyona teknoloji iphambili isetyenziselwa ibandla le-PCB ngaphakathi kokuveliswa kwe-elektroniki. Izinto ze-SMT ziyakwazi ukwenziwa zincinci kakhulu, kwaye kungasetyenziswa iintlobo kwiibhiliyoni zazo, ngakumbi ii-capacitors ze-SMT kunye nee-resistors ze-SMT.

Izixhobo zeSMT

Izinto zokuphakama komphezulu zahlukile koogxa bazo abakhokelayo. Endaweni yokuba yenziwe ngocingo phakathi kwamanqaku amabini, izinto ze-SMT ziyilelwe ukuba zibekwe phantsi ebhodini kwaye zithengiselwe kuyo.

Izikhokelo zabo zokungahambi kwimingxunya ebhodini njengoko kunokulindelwa kwicandelo elikhokelwa ngokwesiko. Kukho iindlela ezahlukeneyo zephakheji yeentlobo ezahlukeneyo zecandelo. Ngokubanzi izitayile zephakeji zinokufakwa ngokwendidi ezintathu: izinto ezingenzi nto, ii-transistors kunye nee-diode, kunye neesekethe ezihlanganisiweyo kwaye ezi ndidi zintathu zamacandelo e-SMT zijongwa ngezantsi.

  • Ii-SMD ezizii-passive:   Kukho iintlobo ngeentlobo zeephakeji ezisetyenziselwa ii-SMDs zokwenza nje. Nangona kunjalo uninzi lwee-SMD ezingenzi nto zii-SMT okanye ii-capacitors ze-SMT apho ubukhulu beephakeji zikumgangatho ofanelekileyo ngokufanelekileyo. Ezinye izinto kubandakanya iikhoyili, iikristali kunye nezinye zihlala zineemfuno ezizezomntu kwaye ngenxa yoko iipakeji zazo.

    Resistors kunye nee-capacitors zinobungakanani beepakeji ezahlukeneyo. La magama anegama eliquka: 1812, 1206, 0805, 0603, 0402, kunye no-0201. Amanani abhekisa kubukhulu kumakhulu ee-intshi. Ngamanye amagama i-1206 imilinganiselo ye-12 x 6 ikhulu le-intshi. Ubungakanani obukhulu obunje nge-1812 kunye ne-1206 zezinye zokuqala ezazisetyenziswa. Azisetyenziswa ngokubanzi ngoku njengoko izinto ezincinci zifunwa ngokubanzi. Nangona kunjalo banokufumana usetyenziso kwizicelo apho kufuneka khona amanqanaba amakhulu ombane okanye apho ezinye izinto ezifuna ubungakanani obukhulu.

    Unxibelelwano kwibhodi yesekethe eprintiweyo yenziwa kwiindawo zesinyithi nakweyiphi na iphakheji.

  • Abaguquleli kunye nee diode:   Ii-SMT transistors kunye nee-diode ze-SMT zihlala ziqulathwe kwiphakheji encinci yeplastiki. Unxibelelwano lwenziwa ngokukhokelwa okuphuma kwiphakheji kwaye kugotyiwe ukuze bachukumise ibhodi. Izikhokelo ezintathu zihlala zisetyenziselwa ezi phakheji. Ngale ndlela kulula ukufumanisa ukuba yeyiphi na indlela ekufuneka ijikeleze isixhobo.
  • Iisekethe ezihlanganisiweyo:   Kukho iintlobo zeephakeji ezisetyenziselwa iisekethe ezidibeneyo. Iphakheji esetyenzisiweyo ixhomekeke kwinqanaba lonxibelelwano olufunekayo. Iichips ezininzi ezinje ngeetshiphusi ezinengqondo zinokufuna izikhonkwane ezili-14 okanye ezili-16, kanti ezinye ezifana neeprosesa ze-VLSI kunye neetshipsi ezinxulumene nazo zinokufuna ukuya kuthi ga kuma-200 okanye nangaphezulu. Ngenxa yokwahluka okubanzi kweemfuno kukho inani leephakeji ezikhoyo ezikhoyo.

Ixesha Post: Dis-14-2020